GeoIP Legacy Apache Module

New Apache Module Available: This module is for the GeoIP Legacy format (dat). To read the MaxMind DB format (mmdb) used by GeoIP2, please see mod_maxminddb

Description

The mod_geoip2 module embeds GeoIP Legacy database lookups into the Apache web server. It is only capable of looking up the IP of a client that connects to the web server, as opposed to looking up arbitrary addresses.

This module works with Apache 2. Please use mod_geoip with Apache 1.

Version

The latest version of mod_geoip2 is version 1.2.9.

Installation

You can download mod_geoip2 from GitHub or get the latest development version from GitHub. See the INSTALL file in the tarball for installation details.

Overview

The mod_geoip2 module uses the libGeoIP library to look up geolocation information for a client as part of the http request process. This module is free software, and is licensed under the Apache license.

To compile and install this module, you must first install libGeoIP 1.4.3 or newer.

The mod_geoip2 module takes effect either during request header parsing phase or the post read request phase, depending on whether it is configured for server-wide use or for a specific location/directory.

When enabled, the module looks at the incoming IP address and sets some variables which provide geolocation information for that IP. The variables it set depend on the specific GeoIP Legacy database being used (Country, City, ISP, etc.). These variables can be set in either the request notes table, the environment or both depending on the server configuration.

Configuration

With the exception of GeoIPDBEnable, all GeoIP configuration directives must be placed in the server-wide context of the main server config. (Please see Server vs Directory context for a full explanation). After installing the module, make sure that

is set in your Apache configuration file or an .htaccess file. This will call the GeoIP Legacy Country database from its default location (e.g. /usr/local/share/GeoIP/GeoIP.dat)

If you want to specify options, for example to use a different database or to pass caching options, you can use the GeoIPDBFile directive:

File and Caching Directives

For example:

The default GeoIPFlag value is Standard, which does not perform any caching, but uses the least memory. To turn on memory caching use:

The memory cache option can use a large amount of memory. We recommend that you use Memory Caching only for the smaller database files, such as GeoIP Legacy Country and GeoIP Legacy ISP.

Another MemoryCache option is MMapCache, which uses the the mmap system call to map the database file into memory.

If you would like the API to check to see if your local GeoIP Legacy files have been updated, set the CheckCache flag:

Before making a call to the database, geoip will check the GeoIP.dat file to see if it has changed. If it has, then it will reload the file. With this option, you do not have to restart Apache when you update your GeoIP Legacy databases.

If you would like to turn on partial memory caching, use the IndexCache flag:

The IndexCache option caches the most frequently accessed index portion of the database, resulting in faster lookups than StandardCache, but less memory usage than MemoryCache. This is especially useful for larger databases such as GeoIP Legacy Organization and GeoIP Legacy City. For the GeoIP Legacy Country, Region and Netspeed databases, setting the IndexCache option just causes the C API to use the MemoryCache.

Currently, multiple GeoIPFlags options can not be combined.

Enabling UTF-8 Output

You may change the output charset from ISO-8859-1 (Latin-1) to UTF-8 with this directive:

By default mod_geoip2 sets variables in both the notes table and environment. For performance reasons you may want to set only the one you use. To do so, use the GeoIPOutput configuration directive:

Output Variable Location

Proxy-Related Directives

By default, this module will simply look at the IP address of the client. However, if the client is using a proxy, this will be the address of the proxy. You can use the GeoIPScanProxyHeaders directive to look at proxy-related headers.

When this is set, the module will look at several other sources for the IP address, in this order:

  • The HTTP_CLIENT_IP environment variable (set by Apache).
  • The HTTP_X_FORWARDED_FOR environment variable (set by Apache).
  • The X-Forwarded-For for header (set by a proxy).
  • The HTTP_REMOTE_ADDR environment variable (set by Apache).

This module will use the first IP address it finds in one of these locations instead of the IP address the client connected from.

Some of these variables may contain a comma-separate list of IP addresses (when a client goes through multiple proxies). In this case, the default behavior is to use the first IP address. You can set the GeoIPUseLastXForwardedForIP directive to use the last address instead:

Or use GeoIPUseFirstNonPrivateXForwardedForIP to use the first non private IP Address.

Apache 2.4 users using mod_remoteip to pick the IP address of the user should disable GeoIPScanProxyHeaders. Mod_geoip2 will use whatever mod_remoteip provides.

Sometimes it is useful to use another field as the source for the client’s IP address. You can set this directive to tell this module which header to look at in order to determine the client’s IP address.

Output Variables

As noted above, these variables can be set in either the Apache request notes table, the environment, or both. The specific variables which are set depend on the database you are using.

GeoIP Country Edition Output Variables

GEOIP_ADDR

The address used to calculate the GeoIP output.

GEOIP_CONTINENT_CODE

A two-character code for the continent associated with the IP address. The possible codes are:

  • AF – Africa
  • AS – Asia
  • EU – Europe
  • NA – North America
  • OC – Oceania
  • SA – South America

GEOIP_COUNTRY_CODE

A two-character ISO 3166-1 country code for the country associated with the IP address. In addition to the standard codes, we may also return one of the following:

The US country code is returned for IP addresses associated with overseas US military bases.

GEOIP_COUNTRY_NAME

The country name associated with the IP address.

GeoIP Region Edition Output Variables

GEOIP_ADDR

The address used to calculate the GeoIP output.

GEOIP_COUNTRY_CODE

A two-character ISO 3166-1 country code for the country associated with the IP address. In addition to the standard codes, we may also return one of the following:

The US country code is returned for IP addresses associated with overseas US military bases.

GEOIP_REGION_NAME

The region name associated with the IP address.

GEOIP_REGION

A two character ISO-3166-2 or FIPS 10-4 code for the state/region associated with the IP address.

For the US and Canada, we return an ISO-3166-2 code. In addition to the standard ISO codes, we may also return one of the following:

  • AA – Armed Forces America
  • AE – Armed Forces Europe
  • AP – Armed Forces Pacific

We return a FIPS code for all other countries.

We provide a CSV file which maps our region codes to region names. The columns are ISO country code, region code (FIPS or ISO), and the region name.

GeoIP City Edition Output Variables

GEOIP_ADDR

The address used to calculate the GeoIP output.

GEOIP_CONTINENT_CODE

A two-character code for the continent associated with the IP address. The possible codes are:

  • AF – Africa
  • AS – Asia
  • EU – Europe
  • NA – North America
  • OC – Oceania
  • SA – South America

GEOIP_COUNTRY_CODE

A two-character ISO 3166-1 country code for the country associated with the IP address. In addition to the standard codes, we may also return one of the following:

The US country code is returned for IP addresses associated with overseas US military bases.

GEOIP_REGION

A two character ISO-3166-2 or FIPS 10-4 code for the state/region associated with the IP address.

For the US and Canada, we return an ISO-3166-2 code. In addition to the standard ISO codes, we may also return one of the following:

  • AA – Armed Forces America
  • AE – Armed Forces Europe
  • AP – Armed Forces Pacific

We return a FIPS code for all other countries.

We provide a CSV file which maps our region codes to region names. The columns are ISO country code, region code (FIPS or ISO), and the region name.

GEOIP_REGION_NAME

The region name associated with the IP address.

GEOIP_CITY

The city or town name associated with the IP address. See our list of cities to see all the possible return values. This list is updated on a regular basis.

GEOIP_METRO_CODE

The metro code associated with the IP address. These are only available for IP addresses in the US. MaxMind returns the same metro codes as the Google AdWords API.

GEOIP_AREA_CODE

The telephone area code associated with the IP address. These are only available for IP addresses in the US.

GEOIP_LATITUDE

The latitude associated with the IP address.

GEOIP_LONGITUDE

The longitude associated with the IP address.

GEOIP_POSTAL_CODE

The postal code associated with the IP address. These are available for some IP addresses in the US, Canada, Germany, and United Kingdom.

GeoIP ISP Edition Output Variables

GEOIP_ADDR

The address used to calculate the GeoIP output.

GEOIP_ISP

The name of the ISP associated with the IP address.

GeoIP Organization Edition Output Variables

GEOIP_ADDR

The address used to calculate the GeoIP output.

GEOIP_ORGANIZATION

The name of the organization associated with the IP address.

GeoIP Netspeed Edition Output Variables

GEOIP_ADDR

The address used to calculate the GeoIP output.

GEOIP_NETSPEED

The network speed associated with the IP address. This can be one of the following values:

  • Dialup
  • Cable/DSL
  • Corporate
  • Cellular

GeoIPv6 Edition (experimental) Output Variables

GEOIP_ADDR

The address used to calculate the GeoIP output.

GEOIP_CONTINENT_CODE_V6

A two-character code for the continent associated with the IP address. The possible codes are:

  • AF – Africa
  • AS – Asia
  • EU – Europe
  • NA – North America
  • OC – Oceania
  • SA – South America

GEOIP_COUNTRY_CODE_V6

A two-character ISO 3166-1 country code for the country associated with the IP address. In addition to the standard codes, we may also return one of the following:

The US country code is returned for IP addresses associated with overseas US military bases.

GEOIP_COUNTRY_NAME_V6

The country name associated with the IP address.

Examples

Here are some examples of how you can use mod_geoip2.

Redirecting a client based on country

This example show you how to redirect a client based on the country code that GeoIP sets.

Blocking a client based on country

This example show you how to block clients based on the country code that GeoIP sets.

Allowing clients based on country

This example show you how to allow only clients from specific countries.

Server vs Directory context

All directives except GeoIPEnable are server config only, i.e., you type it only once per server config. Otherwise the latest wins.

GeoIPEnable is useful in server or directory context. For example:

GeoIP is only available for a specific location:

GeoIP is available for all locations:

Memory Usage

Starting with mod_geoip2 version 1.2.1, all Apache child processes share the same database when you set the MemoryCache or MMapCache flag.

Memory usage is about the same as the database file size, no matter how many child processes Apache spawns. The only thing to remember is ask Apache to update if your database changes. Use the graceful restart option to do so without stopping Apache.

Performance

For improved performance, you may want to enable mod_geoip only for specific HTML pages. If you want to use the mod_geoip module site-wide, you may still be able to only use it for HTML pages and not images. To restrict the pages where mod_geoip2 is used, place the GeoIPEnable On directive inside a , or directive, see: httpd.apache.org/docs/2.0/sections.html

Troubleshooting

If the module is not working, make sure that the httpd user (e.g. nobody) has read access to the GeoIP database file(s) you are using.

If the GeoIP variables do not show up please make sure that the client IP address is not on a private network such as 10.0.0.0/8, 172.16.0.0/12 or 192.168.0.0/16. GeoIP can only look up public IP addresses.